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Plan Insight

AUGUST 2010 Newsletter

When It Comes To Retirement, 67 Is The New 55

Looking forward to retirement? You may have to wait a bit longer. Financial pressures are pushing up retirement ages all over.

William Reichenstein, who teaches finance at Baylor University, tells his students that they will have to save a lot more of their working income if they hope to retire as comfortably as their parents and grandparents, simply because they're going to live longer.

On Wednesday, France, which was the last holdout in Western Europe maintaining an official retirement age of 60, proposed increasing it to 62 by 2018. On the same day, California's Republican Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger announced a deal with four state public employee unions to raise the retirement age by five years for newly hired workers.

These moves follow several recent age increases across Europe and among U.S. states. Faced with one of the worst pension shortfalls in the country, Illinois in March lifted the retirement age for new state workers from as low as 55 all the way to 67.

The increases also anticipate the coming debate among members of the White House deficit commission over raising the eligibility age for Social Security benefits. The group will release recommendations on lowering the federal debt this fall.

The motivations driving all these various governments are similar. People are living longer and, therefore, are drawing retirement benefits for longer periods. That has placed enormous strain on pension programs of all sorts.

As a result, benefit cuts and higher retirement ages are becoming the norm. "That's where we are," says Sujit CanagaRetna, a senior fiscal analyst with the Council of State Governments. "We're in a very tight situation where these types of changes are inevitable."

Longevity's Price Tag

William Reichenstein, who teaches finance at Baylor University, tells his students that they will have to save a lot more of their working income if they hope to retire as comfortably as their parents and grandparents, simply because they're going to live longer.

Retirement Ages Around The World

View a sampling of official retirement ages around the world, according to a 2009 report from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, based on data from 2002-07. France is among the countries listed that have already announced plans to raise their retirement ages in the coming years.

"If their parents are going to retire at 65 after working 40 years, they need to plan for about a 20-year investment horizon," he says. "For my students' generation, with life expectancy going up about a month a year, in their cases they have maybe 25 years in retirement they have to plan for", says Adrienne Wollman of NPR.

Another result of longer lifespans in the United States is that the ratio of people paying into Social Security, compared with those drawing benefits, is shrinking rapidly. "We know that in 2017, Social Security will begin paying out for the foreseeable future more in benefits than it collects in taxes," says Richard W. Johnson, director of the Urban Institute's retirement policy program.

The Social Security trust fund will be able to make up the shortfall for 20 to 25 years. "But that trust fund is now being used to offset other parts of the deficit," Johnson says. "Once we can no longer use that trust fund to fund other services, the deficit really balloons."

How Old Is Fair?

That's why President Obama's deficit commission is seriously considering raising the retirement age. Currently, people can start collecting reduced benefits at 62, with full benefits available at 66. The full retirement age is set to rise to 67 for people born after 1960.

Raising the full retirement age by 2020, rather than 2027, would save $92 billion, according to the Congressional Budget Office.

"We have this huge problem we really have to address," says Steven Sass, director of the Center for Financial Literacy at Boston College. "We either have to cut benefits or increase revenues."

Sass points out, however, that raising Social Security's retirement age will disproportionately affect low- and moderate-income workers. People who work longer into old age tend to hold less physically demanding office jobs and are better educated. Those who are less educated or work in manual labor make up a greater share of people who are opting for the lower-paying early retirement benefits. Their numbers are increasing with the recession.

Because Social Security benefits are paid out on a sliding scale you lose about 7 percent for every year you retire early raising the full retirement age amounts to a de facto cut for those who are forced to retire early. "It's a terrible way to cut benefits," says Eric Kingson, a professor of social work at Syracuse University and co-director of Social Security Works, a coalition of unions and other groups that lobbies against benefit cuts.  "Life expectancy has improved, but not for all the groups," he says.

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This page was last reviewed and/or updated on Friday, July 03, 2015 05:21 PM

 

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